27 Kazia Theraputics Limited Annual Report 2023 Chairman and CEO’s Letter Key Milestones Introduction to Kazia’s CEO Pipeline Review Environment, Society and Governance Financial Reports Our success depends, in part, on our ability to protect our intellectual property and our technologies. Our commercial success depends, in part, on our ability to obtain and maintain patent and trade secret protection for our technologies, our traits, and their uses, as well as our ability to operate without infringing upon the proprietary rights of others. If we do not adequately protect our intellectual property, competitors may be able to use our technologies and erode or negate any competitive advantage we may have, which could harm our business and ability to achieve profitability. Filing, prosecuting and defending patents on product candidates in all countries around the world would be prohibitively expensive. In addition, we may at times in-license third-party technologies for which limited international patent protection exists and for which the time period for filing international patent applications has passed. Consequently, we may not be able to prevent third parties from practicing our inventions, or from selling or importing products made using our inventions. Potential competitors may use our technologies in jurisdictions where we have not obtained patent protection to develop their own products and further, may export otherwise infringing products to territories where we have patent protection but enforcement is difficult. These products may compete with our product candidates, if approved, and our patents or other intellectual property rights may not be effective or sufficient to prevent them from competing. Many companies have encountered significant problems in protecting and defending intellectual property rights around the world. The legal systems of certain countries, particularly certain developing countries, do not favour the enforcement of patents, trade secrets and other intellectual property protection, particularly those relating to biotechnology products, which could make it difficult for us to stop the infringement of our patents or marketing of competing products in violation of our proprietary rights generally. Proceedings to enforce our patent rights could result in substantial costs and divert our efforts and attention from other aspects of our business, could put our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and our patent applications at risk of not issuing and could provoke third parties to assert claims against us. We may not prevail in any lawsuits that we initiate and the damages or other remedies awarded, if any, may not be commercially meaningful. Accordingly, our efforts to enforce our intellectual property rights around the world may be inadequate to obtain a significant commercial advantage from the intellectual property that we develop or license. Risks Related to Our Reliance on Third Parties The Company relies on third parties to conduct its pre-clinical studies and clinical trials. If those parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or meet expected deadlines, the Company’s drug candidates may not advance in a timely manner or at all. In the course of discovery, pre-clinical testing and clinical trials, the Company relies on third parties, including laboratories, investigators, clinical contract research organizations (“CROs”), and manufacturers, to perform critical services. For example, the Company relies on third parties to conduct all of its pre-clinical and clinical studies. These third parties may not be available when the Company needs them or, if they are available, may not comply with all regulatory and contractual requirements or may not otherwise perform their services in a timely or acceptable manner, and the Company may need to enter into new arrangements with alternative third parties and the studies may be extended, delayed or terminated. These independent third parties may also have relationships with other commercial entities, some of which may compete with the Company. As a result of the Company’s dependence on third parties, it may face delays or failures outside of its direct control. These risks also apply to the development activities of collaborators, and the Company does not control their research and development, clinical trial or regulatory activities. The Company has no direct control over the cost of manufacturing its drug candidates. Increases in the cost of manufacturing the Company’s drug candidates would increase the costs of conducting clinical trials and could adversely affect future profitability. The Company does not intend to manufacture the drug product candidates in-house, and it will rely on third parties for drug supplies both for clinical trials and for commercial quantities in the future. The Company has taken the strategic decision not to manufacture active pharmaceutical ingredients (“API”) for the drug candidates, as these can be more economically supplied by third parties with particular expertise in this area. The Company outsources the manufacture of its drug products and their testing to FDA requirements. The Company uses contract facilities that are registered with the FDA, have a track record of large-scale API manufacture, and have already invested in capital and equipment. The Company has no direct control over the cost of manufacturing its product candidates. If the cost of manufacturing increases, or if the cost of the materials used increases, these costs may be passed on, making the cost of conducting clinical trials more expensive. Increases in manufacturing costs could adversely affect the Company’s future profitability if it was unable to pass all of the increased costs along to its customers.