Kazia Therapeutics Annual Reports 2023

24 DIRECTORS’ REPORT Our internal computer and information technology systems, or those of our collaborators and other development partners, third-party Contract Research Organizations (CROs) or other contractors or consultants, may fail or suffer security breaches, which could result in a disruption of our product development programs. Despite the implementation of security measures, our internal computer and information technology systems and those of our current and any future CROs and other contractors, consultants and collaborators are vulnerable to damage from computer viruses, cyber-attacks, unauthorized access, natural disasters, terrorism, war and telecommunication and electrical failures. Such events could cause interruptions of our operations. While we have not experienced any material system failure, accident or security breach to date, if such an event were to occur and cause interruptions in our operations, it could result in a disruption of our development programs and our business operations, whether due to a loss of our trade secrets or other similar disruptions. For example, the loss of clinical trial data from ongoing or future clinical trials or data from preclinical studies could result in delays in our regulatory approval efforts and significantly increase our costs to recover or reproduce the data. Likewise, we rely on third parties to manufacture our product candidates and will rely on third parties to conduct future clinical trials, and similar events relating to their computer systems could also have similar consequences to our business. To the extent that any disruption or security breach were to result in a loss of, or damage to, our data or applications, or inappropriate disclosure of confidential or proprietary information, we could incur liability and the further development and commercialization of our product candidates could be delayed and become more expensive. Our ability to utilize our net operating losses and certain other tax attributes may be limited. We have substantial carried forward tax losses which may not be available to offset any future assessable income. In order for an Australian corporate taxpayer to carry forward and utilize tax losses, the taxpayer must pass either the continuity of ownership test (“COT”), or, if it fails the COT, the same business test (“SBT”), or similar business test, in respect of relevant tax losses. We have not carried out any formal analysis as to whether we have met the COT or, failing the COT, the SBT or similar business test over relevant periods. In addition, future shareholding changes may result in a significant ownership change for us. It is therefore uncertain as to whether any of our tax losses carried forward as of 30 June 2023 will be available to be carried forward and available to offset our assessable income, if any, in future periods. Risks Related to the Product Development and Regulatory Approval of Our Product Candidates We may not be able to obtain orphan drug exclusivity, where relevant, in all markets for our product candidates. Regulatory authorities in some jurisdictions, including the United States, may designate drugs for relatively small patient populations as orphan drugs. Under the Orphan Drug Act, the FDA may designate a product as an orphan drug if it is a product intended to treat a rare disease or condition, which is generally defined as a patient population of fewer than 200,000 individuals annually in the United States. The FDA may also designate a product as an orphan drug if it is intended to treat a disease or condition of more than 200,000 individuals in the United States and there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making a drug or biological product available in the United States for this type of disease or condition will be recovered from sales of the product candidate. Generally, if a product with an orphan drug designation subsequently receives the first marketing approval for the indication for which it has such designation, the product is entitled to a period of marketing exclusivity, which precludes the FDA from approving another marketing application for the same drug for such indication for that time period. The applicable period is seven years in the United States. Orphan drug exclusivity may be lost if the FDA determines that the request for designation was materially defective or if the manufacturer is unable to assure sufficient quantity of the drug to meet the needs of patients with the rare disease or condition. Paxalisib (formerly GDC-0084) was granted orphan drug designation by the FDA in February 2018 for the treatment of glioblastoma, in August 2020 for the treatment of malignant glioma, which includes DIPG, a rare and highly aggressive childhood brain cancer, and in June 2022 for the treatment of atypical rhabdoid / teratoid tumors (AT/RT). However, even if we obtain orphan drug exclusivity for additional products in the United States or other jurisdictions, that exclusivity may not effectively protect the product from competition because different drugs can be approved for the same condition, and the same drug could be approved for a different condition. Moreover, even after an orphan drug is approved, the FDA can subsequently approve the same drug, made by a competitor, for the same condition if the FDA concludes that the competitive product is clinically superior in that it is shown to be safer, more effective or makes a major contribution to patient care. Positive results from preclinical studies of our product candidates are not necessarily predictive of the results of our planned clinical trials of our product candidates. Positive results in preclinical proof of concept and animal studies of our product candidates may not result in positive results in clinical trials in humans. Many companies in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have suffered significant setbacks in clinical trials after achieving positive results in preclinical development or early-stage clinical trials, and we cannot be certain that we will not face similar setbacks. These setbacks have been caused by, among other things, preclinical findings made while clinical trials were underway or safety or efficacy observations made in clinical trials, including adverse events. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials nonetheless failed to obtain FDA or other regulatory authority approval. If we fail to produce positive results in our clinical trials of our product candidates, the development timeline and regulatory approval and commercialization prospects for our product candidates, and, correspondingly, our business and financial prospects, would be negatively impacted.